The field of researches of the symbolical is great: philosophical hermeneutics (G. Gadamer), culture philosophy (., philosophy of symbolical forms (E.Kassirer), archetypes collective unconscious (K. Jun, language philosophy (L. Wittgenstein, Zh. Lakan, etc.). Researches symbolical are presented in the concept of a symbolical interactionism (J. Mid. G. Blumer, I. Boffman) where the symbolical is considered as "generalized" another".
"Partial loss (weakening, insufficiency, damage) of communication with habitat (defect of the plan of activity) and similar (defect of the plan of the relations) is also the initial alienation excluding a prachelovek from natural totality. This collision is deeply tragic. As the tragedy it is also comprehended in the myth about exile pervolyudy of paradise, and in the myth idea of loss as plan of activity ("eating up of a forbidden fruit"), and the plan of the relations is metaphorically embodied in community ("fall of man"). "Expelled" from natural totality, become "the libertine of the nature" as Herder called the person, it is a being free: not having the positive program of existence".
However the nature is capable to offer each live look a set of chances. There was such chance and at the person. Without having the accurate instinktualny program, without knowing how to behave in a concrete environment with advantage for itself, the person unconsciously began to look narrowly at other animals more strongly implanted in the nature. He as if was beyond the specific program. In it "peculiarity" inherent in it was shown; after all many other beings did not manage to overcome own natural limitation and died out.
Whether it is possible, Kassirer asks, to apply these principles to a human look? Possibly, it is possible and in that measure in what it remains a biological organism. However the human world is something qualitative other as between receptor and effector systems still the third system, the special link connecting them which can be called the symbolical Universe develops. Owing to this fact the person not only in richer, but also qualitatively other world, in new measurement of reality.
However the concept of value is used in modern philosophical literature in various values. It is natural that these estimates and divergences create a range unexpected, often inconsistent ideas of culture. Broad interpretation of value at which it is difficult to reveal specifics and the content of concept appears the most widespread.
The role of values in a structure and functioning of culture at anybody from researchers does not raise doubts. Moreover, most often the culture as a social phenomenon is defined through valuable orientations. "The culture is identification of sense of the world in a community of people, in their practice and in the ideals divided by them together", - F.Dyumon noted in the plenary report. In modern social and philosophical postizheniye of culture its axiological nature is thoroughly staticized.
The sociality, cultural standards dictate to the person others, than the biological program, images of behavior. Instincts in the person are weakened, forced out by purely human wants and motives, in other words, "are cultivated". Whether obtusion of instincts – a product of historical development is valid? The latest researches disprove such conclusion. It appears, weak expressiveness of instincts is caused not by expansion of a sociality at all. Direct link is absent here.
For primitive thinking, Kassirer considers, it is very difficult to carry out distinction between spheres of life and value, they constantly mix up therefore the symbol is allocated with magic or physical force. However during further cultural development of the relation between things and symbols clear up as also the relations between opportunity and reality clear up. On the other hand, in all those cases when on the way of symbolical thinking any obstacles come to light, distinction between reality and opportunity also ceases to be perceived clearly.